Kernan Family Origins

The origins of the Kernan family is on one level very simple and on another very elusive, a fact generated by both historical records and oral family history. Although there are some discrepancies between them, oral family history and available historical records for the Kernan family are clear on the origins of the family. According to both, the Kernan family traces back to Ireland. Family group sheets detailing information from the Bible of Delmar Clair Kernan (1908-1979) clearly shows this, as does the 1851 Canadian Census, the 1857 Minnesota Census, the 1860 and 1880 U.S. Federal Censuses, the Missouri Permanent Record of Birth for George Edward Kernan (1884-1960), and the 1901 death certificate for Owen Francis Kiernan (1836-1901).

1851 Canadian Census showing the oldest members of the family as having been born in Ireland.

The 1851 Canadian Census showing the oldest members of the Kernan family (Felix and Martha) as having been born in Ireland.

Although both oral family history and available historical records are clear regarding the family’s Irish origins, neither has provided a clear understanding of precisely where in Ireland the family is from. The only clue that exists is a claim on a family group sheet detailing information from the Bible of Delmar Clair Kernan (1908-1979). The information is about Delmar’s grandfather, Owen Francis Kiernan (1836-1979), and it claims that Owen was born in “Northern Ireland.” It should be noted that despite this claim, Owen was not, unlike his parents (Felix and Martha), born in Ireland, but rather in Quebec, Canada. This record, moreover, provides no other information about where in “Northern Ireland” Owen was said to have been born.

The Kernan Family Group Sheet for Owen Kiernan showing his birthplace as being "Northern Ireland."

The Kernan Family Group Sheet for Owen Kiernan showing his birthplace as being “Northern Ireland.”

Despite being in disagreement with historical records (such as Owen’s baptismal record, death certificate, and census records), perhaps the claim of “Northern Ireland” can still be true of the family in general, or rather true of Owen’s parents, which historical records clearly show were born in Ireland. Before looking into available sources that could shed light on the validity of such a claim, what is meant by “Northern Ireland” as recorded in family records should be explored. This is of particular importance given the fact that the family immigrated to North America long before the existence of the region of the United Kingdom known as Northern Ireland. Thus, it seems likely that “Northern Ireland” refers to the northern province of Ireland, which is the historic Ulster Province. Since 1921, this province has been divided between the United Kingdom and the Republic of Ireland. The historic Ulster Province, moreover, shares a border with counties in both Connacht and Leinster Provinces, which are exclusively in the Republic of Ireland. The following chart shows the counties of historic Ulster Province, the counties that share a border with them, and the country (United Kingdom or Republic of Ireland) they are presently found in.

Counties Province Country
County Antrim Ulster United Kingdom
County Armagh Ulster United Kingdom
County Cavan Ulster Republic of Ireland
County Donegal Ulster Republic of Ireland
County Down Ulster United Kingdom
County Fermanagh Ulster United Kingdom
County Leitrim Connacht Republic of Ireland
County Londonderry Ulster United Kingdom
County Longford Leinster Republic of Ireland
County Louth Leinster Republic of Ireland
County Meath Leinster Republic of Ireland
County Monaghan Ulster Republic of Ireland
County Tyrone Ulster United Kingdom
County Westmeath Leinster Republic of Ireland

Kiernan/Kernan Origins & Surname Studies

Based on research into Irish surnames, moreover, the claim of a “Northern Ireland” (or Ulster) origins would not be too difficult to assume, as it seems clear that a majority of persons bearing the Kernan surname (or variations of it) trace to this part of Ireland—the historic Ulster Province, as well as some surrounding counties that share a border with those belonging to Ulster. In fact, various sources discussing the origins of Irish surnames state that the majority of those bearing the Kernan surname (and its variations) descend from the original bearers of the MacKiernan surname that were a sept of the historic Kingdom of Breifne, which consisted of modern day Counties Cavan and Leitrim. They were in those days the Lords (Barons or Chiefs) of Teallach-Dunchadha (now Tullyhunco), which is within modern day County Cavan. As a history of Killeshandra points out, “During the later middle ages the dominant family or clan in the area was the McKiernan family. The land of Tullyhunco, which was the McKiernan territory, was included in the rectory of the same name and its church was at Killeshandra. The chieftains of the McKiernans had their dwelling place at Croghan and the family had managed to maintain a certain degree of autonomy thanks to their geographical position between the two hostile septs of O’Reilly and O’Rourke.”

The Hill of Croghan, viewed from across the Town Lake

The Hill of Croghan, viewed from across the Town Lake

Although surname studies usually identify Counties Cavan and Leitrim as the historic origins of those bearing the surname, a few other counties have also been identified by such studies as being the historical origins of those bearing the surname, though to a lesser degree. These studies claim that some bearers of the surname have been identified as a branch of the O’Connors in County Roscommon, being descendants of Tighearnan, the grandson of Turlough Mor O’Connor, King of Ireland. Other bearers of the surname, these studies claim, have been identified as a branch of the Maguires (MacGuire) of County Fermanagh, who were formerly chiefs of Clan Fearghaile. Still other bearers of the surname, these studies claim, have been identified as descendants, along with O’Ternane, O’Tiernan, Tiernan, Ternan, and Tierney, of the original bearers of the O’Tighearnán surname of Counties Mayo and Westmeath. Finally, other bearers of the surname, these studies claim, have also been identified as descendants, along with O’Kernaghan, O’Kernan, Carnahan, Kernaghan, Kernahan, and possibly McCarnan and Cernan, of the original bearers of the Ó’Cearnacháin surname of Counties Donegal, Mayo, and Sligo. With the exceptions of Counties Roscommon, Mayo, and Sligo, all of these counties are either in the historic Ulster Province, or share a border with it.

The following chart summarizes the five significant lines that are usually identified by surname studies for possible origins for persons bearing the Kernan/Kiernan surname.

Line Counties Surnames
Breifne, Teallach-Dunchadha (now Tullyhunco) Cavan and Leitrim MagTíghearnán, MacTiernan, MacTiernan, MacKiernan, MacKernan Kiernan, Kernan, Tiernan, Ternan, Tierney
O’Connor Roscommon MagTíghearnán, MacTiernan, MacTiernan, MacKiernan, MacKernan Kiernan, Kernan, Tiernan, Ternan, Tierney
Maguires (MacGuire)or Clan Fearghaile Fermanagh MagTíghearnán, MacTiernan, MacTiernan, MacKiernan, MacKernan Kiernan, Kernan, Tiernan, Ternan, Tierney
O’Tiernan Mayo and Westmeath O’Tighearnán, O’Ternane, O’Tiernan, Tiernan, Ternan, and Tierney
O’Kernan Donegal, Mayo, and Sligo Ó’Cearnacháin, O’Kernaghan, O’Kernan, Carnahan, Kernaghan, Kernahan, and possibly McCarnan and Cernan

Kiernan/Kernan Origins & Historical Records

In addition to surname studies, historical records may also provide support for the claim of a Northern Ireland origin for the Kernan/Kiernan family. The 1659 Pender Census, which does not provide any details for Counties Cavan, Galway, Mayo, Tyrone, and Wicklow, shows, among other details, the principal surnames in particular locations in Ireland. According to this historical record, the Kiernan surname was among the principal surnames in County Roscommon and Athlone Borough, as well as being among the principal surnames in the Barony of Ardagh and the Barony of Granard in County Longford. The McKernan surname, moreover, is recorded as being among the principal surnames in the parishes of Clownish, Aghaveigh, and Devonish of County Fermanagh. The Kernan surname is recorded among the principal surnames in Dublin City in County Dublin, as well as being among the principal surnames in the Barony of Granard in County Longford and the Barony of Farbill in County Westmeath. The O’Kernan surname, moreover, is recorded among the principal surnames in the parishes of Dummully, Terribruske, Derryvollan, Magherycross, and Ennis McSaint in County Fermanagh. The McTiernan surname is recorded among the principal surnames in the Barony of Rossclogher in County Leitrim, while the McTernan surname is recorded among the principal surnames in the Baronies of Leitrim, Mohill, and Carrigallan in County Leitrim.

More recent historical records also show that those bearing the Kernan surname (and its variations, particularly Kiernan) are numerous in counties either in or sharing a border with the historic Ulster Province, particularly Counties Cavan, Longford, Leitrim, Armagh, Tyrone, and Monaghan. These historical records show particular concentrations for those bearing the Kernan/Kiernan surname. The Ireland Select Births and Baptisms, 1620-1911 (Ancestry.com) shows the greatest concentration of Kiernan births and baptisms were in Counties Leitrim, Cavan, and Longford, with additional concentrations in Counties Meath, Dublin, and Westmeath. This historical record collection also shows the greatest concentration of Kernan births and baptisms were in Counties Dublin and Tyrone, with additional concentrations in Counties Cavan, Armagh, and Antrim. The Tithe Applotment Books (1823-37), which were compiled to determine the amount which occupiers of agricultural holdings over one acre should pay in tithes to the Church of Ireland, shows the greatest concentration of Kiernans in Counties Longford, Leitrim, Clare, and Cavan, with lesser concentrations in Counties Westmeath, Meath, and Dublin. This historical record also shows the greatest concentration of Kernans in Counties Monaghan, Cavan, and Westmeath, with lesser concentrations in Counties Westmeath, Kildare, and Meath. The Primary Valuation (1847-1864), also known as Griffith’s Valuation, shows the greatest cocentration of Kiernans in Counties Longford, Leitrim, Dublin, and Cavan, with additional concentrations in Counties Westmeath and Meath. This historical record also shows that the greatest concentration of Kernans are found in Meath, Monaghan, and Armagh, with additional concentrations in Counties Dublin and Cavan. Other records show that in the Mid-19th century, 30.6% of all Kernan/Kiernan households were in County Longford, 19.9% were in County Cavan, 12.7% were in County Leitrim, 9.5% were in County Meath, 9.1% were in County Westmeath, 9% were dispersed throughout Dublin City and County Dublin, 2.4% were in County Monaghan, and the remaining were dispersed throughout other counties in Ireland.

Although well after the family immigrated, moreover, The Ireland, Civil Registration Births Index, 1864-1958 (Ancestry.com) shows the greatest concentration of Kiernan births were in Counties Dublin, Tipperary, Longford, Cavan, and Donegal, with additional concentrations in Counties Offaly, Laois, Monaghan, and Westmeath. This historical record collection also shows the greatest concentration of Kernan births were in Counties Dublin and Tipperary, with additional concentrations in Monaghan and Donegal. Additionally, the Baptismal/Birth Records of Ireland (RootsIreland.ie) show the greatest concentration of Kiernan births and baptisms were in Counties Longford, Leitrim, Meath, and Cavan, with additional concentrations in Counties Westmeath and Dublin. This historical record collection also shows the greatest concentration of Kernan births and baptisms were in Counties in Meath, Armagh, Cavan, and Longford, with additional concentrations in Counties Dublin, Westmeath, and Leitrim. The Marriage Records of Ireland (RootsIreland.ie) show the greatest concentration of Kiernan marriages were in Counties Longford, Leitrim, and Meath, with additional concentrations in Counties Cavan, Westmeath, and Dublin. This historical record collection also shows the greatest concentration of Kernan marriages were in Counties Armagh, Dublin, and Cavan, with additional concentrations in Counties Leitrim, Longford, and Meath. The Burial/Death Records of Ireland (RootsIreland.ie), furthermore, show the greatest concentration of Kiernan deaths and burials were in Counties Leitrim and Longford, with additional cocnentrations in Meath and Westmeath.

The 1890 Births Distribution, moreover, which is based on Matheson’s Special Report on Surnames in Ireland (1909), shows the principal locations of birth registrations for surnames in 1890. According to this historical record, the greatest concentration of Kiernan births were in Leinster Province, followed by Ulster, then Connacht, and then Munster. Additionally, the greatest concentration of births were in Counties Dublin, Longford, Leitrim, and Cavan. The 1901 Census of Ireland, furthermore, shows the greatest concentration of Kiernans in Counties Longford, Leitrim, and Cavan, with additional concentrations in Dublin, Westmeath, and Meath. This historical record also shows that the greatest concentration of Kernans is in Counties Dublin, Armagh, and Monaghan, with additional concentrations in Cavan, Antrim, and Meath. The 1911 Census of Ireland shows the greatest concentration of Kiernans in Counties Longford, Dublin, Cavan, and Leitrim, with additional concentrations in Westmeath and Meath. This historical record also shows that the greatest concentration of Kernans is in Counties Dublin and Cavan, with additional concentrations in Armagh and Monaghan.

The following chart summarizes the important Irish historical records or sources pertaining to the concentration of Kernans/Kiernans (and its variations) in Ireland over time. Identified counties are arranged from greatest to lowest concentration.

Historical Records Counties Identified
The 1659 Pender Census Roscommon, Fermanagh, Dublin, Longford, Westmeath, and Leitrim
The Ireland Select Births and Baptisms, 1620-1911 Leitrim, Cavan, Longford, Meath, Dublin, Westmeath, Tyrone, Armagh, and Antrim
The Tithe Applotment Books
(1823-1837)
Longford, Leitrim, Clare, Cavan, Westmeath, Meath, Dublin, Monaghan, and Kildare
Primary Valuation Property Survey
of 1847-1864
Longford, Leitrim, Dublin, Cavan, Westmeath, Meath, Monaghan, and Armagh
Mid-19th Century Households Longford, Cavan, Leitrim, Meath, Westmeath, Dublin, and Monaghan
The Ireland Civil Registration Births Index, 1864-1958 Dublin, Tipperary, Longford, Cavan, Donegal, Offaly, Laois, Monaghan, and Westmeath
The Baptismal/Birth Records of
Ireland (RootsIreland.ie)
Longford, Leitrim, Meath, Cavan, Westmeath, Dublin, and Armagh
The Marriage Records of Ireland (RootsIreland.ie) Longford, Leitrim, Meath, Cavan, Westmeath, Dublin, and Armagh
The Burial/Death Records of Ireland (RootsIreland.ie) Leitrim, Longford, Meath, and Westmeath
1890 Births Distribution Dublin, Longford, Leitrim, Cavan
1901 Census of Ireland Longford, Leitrim, Cavan, Dublin, Westmeath, Meath, Armagh, Monaghan, and Antrim
1911 Census of Ireland Longford, Dublin, Cavan, Leitrim, Meath, Armagh, and Monaghan

Although this surname based survey of historical records is helpful in identifying possible counties from which the Kiernan/Kernan family could have originated, locating those who were born and lived in Ireland on actual records detailing households would be more helpful in identifying the family’s true county of origins in Ireland. However, there are a number of issues relating to source records that make such an effort difficult. Civil registrations in Ireland did not begin until 1864 for all births, deaths, and marriages. Records prior to 1864 are kept by Parish churches. Although an effort has been underway to transcribe and index these records, the fact that these records are not public and that their general condition is quite poor the process has been very difficult. Census records, moreover, were created starting in 1821 and continued every ten years. However, a majority of the 1821, 1831, 1841, and 1851 census records were destroyed in the fire at the Public Record Office in the Four Courts in 1922. Additionally, census records for 1861, 1871, 1881, and 1891 were destroyed by the government. The 1901 and 1911 census records, however, are available for the whole country.

Despite the limits of these historical records, research using available databases containing Irish records, such as RootsIreland.ie, reveals some possible, though unverified, matches for the earliest members of the Kiernan/Kernan family. In particular, a few have been found for the earliest confirmed member of the family, Felix Kiernan (ca. 1796-1882). A 1796 baptismal record for a Felix Kiernan in County Louth has been found. A 1795 baptismal record for a Felix MacKearnan in County Dublin has also been found. Furthermore, two entries for a Felix Kiernan in County Cavan have been found. Although these records are possible matches, they have not been verified as such particularly because of the fact that the given names and surname are so common and they are, in several cases, different than what family and historical records reveal for the family.

Kiernan/Kernan Origins & Genetic Studies

Apart from surname studies and historical records, recent genetic studies concerning Irish surnames have proved to be another valuable source for identifying possible origins within Ireland. These studies reveal that the greatest genetic concentration of Kiernans are found in Counties Longford, Dublin, Cavan, Leitrim, and Westmeath. They also reveal that the greatest genetic concentration of Kernans are found in Counties Dublin and Cavan; the greatest genetic concentration of McKiernans are found in Counties Leitrim and Cavan; and the greatest genetic concentration of McKernans are found in Counties Tyrone, Antrim, and Armagh. They also reveal that the greatest genetic concentration of Tiernans are found in Counties Roscommon, Leitrim, Dublin, Louth, and Mayo; the greatest genetic concentration of Ternans are found in Dublin and Mayo; the greatest genetic concentration of McTiernans are found in Leitrim and Sligo; and the greatest genetic concentration of McTernans are found in Leitrim and Sligo. These studies, moreover, have concluded that the “genetic homeland” of persons bearing the Kiernan surname appears to be County Longford, the “genetic homeland” of persons bearing the McKernan surname appears to be County Tyrone, and the “genetic homeland” of persons bearing the McTernan surname appears to be County Leitrim.

The following chart summarizes the primary and additional counties of genetic origins and the genetic homeland for the Kiernan/Kernan surname and other variant spellings.

Surname Primary Counties Additional Counties Genetic Homeland
Kiernan Longford, Dublin, Cavan, Leitrim, and Westmeath Meath, Roscommon, Monaghan, Louth, Cork, Fermanagh, Armagh, Antrim, Kildare, Wicklow, and Galway Longford
Kernan Dublin and Cavan Monaghan, Armagh, Meath, Roscommon, Donegal, Antrim, Laois (Queens), and Wicklow ?
McKiernan Leitrim and Cavan Dublin, Fermanagh, Antrim, Westmeath, meath, Monaghan, Tyrone, Armagh, Clare, and Limerick ?
McKernan Tyrone, Antrim, and Armagh Dublin, Fermanagh, Monaghan, Londonderry, Down, Cavan, and Limerick Tyrone
Tiernan Roscommon, Leitrim, Dublin, Louth, and Mayo Sligo, Longford, Meath, Westmeath, Kildare, Galway, Clare, Londonderry, Antrim, Armagh, Fermanagh, Offaly (Kings), Tipperary, Waterford, and Wexford ?
Ternan Dublin and Mayo Roscommon, Leitrim, Fermanagh, and Tyrone ?
McTiernan Leitrim and Sligo Offaly (Kings), Fermanagh, and Down ?
McTernan Leitrim and Sligo Cavan, Roscommon, Cork, Dublin, and Fermanagh Leitrim

Conclusions

The survey of surname studies, historical records, and genetic studies for the Kiernan/Kernan surname (and its variations) presented above identifies a large number counties in the historic Ulster Province, as well as counties that border those belonging to Ulster and others found in modern day Ireland, making it difficult to see what such a survey might reveal about the true origins of the Kiernan/Kernan family. This difficulty can best be seen by the following map, which attempts to illustrate the most important counties that have been identified by these various sources as possible counties of origin for the Kernan/Kiernan family. The most important of these counties (based on sources) is identified on the map as “Primary Historic & Genetic Counties of Origin” (the darker green color), followed by “Other Counties with Large Populations of Kiernans” (the lighter green color), followed by “Other Counties with Significant (but Lesser) Populations of Kiernans” (the light brown color), followed by “Other Counties of Possible Historic Origins” (the light grey color).

Map of Ireland showing the historic and genetic counties of Ireland for the Kernan/Kiernan family.

The large number of counties identified by surname studies, historical records, and genetic studies, moreover, can be narrowed down. The following chart summarizes the most frequent counties identified by surname studies, historical records, and genetic studies for those bearing the Kiernan and Kernan surname that are also found within the historic Ulster Province and those counties that share a border, and are thus consistent with the oral family history claim of “Northern Ireland” origins. These counties, moreover, are listed from greatest to lowest frequency in each category.

Source Kiernan Kernan
Surname Studies Cavan, Leitrim, Fermanagh Cavan, Leitrim, Fermanagh
Historical Records Longford, Leitrim, Cavan Armagh, Cavan, Monaghan
Genetic Studies Longford, Cavan, Leitrim, Westmeath Cavan

From the chart above, it is clear that the most frequently repeated counties are Cavan and Leitrim for the Kiernan surname, and Cavan for the Kernan surname.

Although the various studies discussed above provide a fascinating survey of where the Kernan/Kiernan surname is historically and even genetically concentrated in Ireland, it provides little help in identifying the specific county or township that our Kernan/Kiernan family actually originated from. Nevertheless, it does appear that the “Northern Ireland” claim of oral family history is provided some supporting evidence.

Sources

Many of the statistics for concentrations of Kernan/Kiernan households within Ireland came from data found on The Irish Times website. Information from the 1659 Pender Census came from “A Census of Ireland circa 1659” website and the “Ireland Genealogy Projects” website. Information from The Tithe Applotment Books, the 1901 Census of Ireland, and the 1911 Census of Ireland came from The National Archives of Ireland website. Additional historical records and collections are from Ancestry.com and RootsIreland.ie, where cited above. Information about genetic studies of Irish surnames came from the Irish Origenes website. Additionally, the information referencing the Irish baptismal record is found on RootsIreland.

10 thoughts on “Kernan Family Origins

  1. My great grandfather, Michael Kernan, migrated from Co. Westmeath to Baltimore, MD in 1844 at the age of 22. Your information confirms what we have been able to find. His brother, Edward, worked in stonework when he migrated to Baltimore so we believe the family was from the norther part of Weastmeath where we understand there are stone quaries. Any additional information is welcome. Thanks! AnnKernan

    • Hi Ann,

      Sorry my reply is so late. My site is not intended to be a history of all Kernans, but rather of my own family. If you look below, there is a gentleman named Fred G. Kernan. His family was also in the Baltimore area. Perhaps you might contact him and see if you have a familial connection?

      Take care,

      William

  2. My name is Fred G. Kernan; I was named (Frederick) but hated that name ever since I was 7. I do know my great great grand father Owen came from county Langford. He was born in 1836 and died in Baltimore Md. in 1901. Can you fill in the early life if this man. Fred

    • Hi Fred,

      I do have an Owen Kiernan/Kernan in my family tree, but he was born in Quebec, Canada and died in Portland, Oregon. This site is not intended to be a history of all Kernans, just my own family; so I don’t have any information on other Kernan families or branches. I wish you good luck in searching your family tree.

      Take care,

      William

  3. The Name is actually MacThighearnain.
    Ulster has 9 counties NOT 6.
    The Family did spread out from Meath to Roscommon, Leitrim, Sligo, Cavan, Monaghan and Tyrone. The biggest amount of them seems to have been in Tyrone in the 1800s.
    From there they branched out to Belfast and there is a big amount of them to be found there. Many of the Family emigrated to America with Marriages to Jones, Pennell and others. The biggest amount of MacThighearnain/McKernan family tree and branches can be found in Pennsylvania, Philadelphia areas. I have a list somewhere if it helps.

    Respectfully
    Seosa MacThighearnain.

    • Hi Seosa,

      Thank you for your reply. I am aware of the original spelling of the surname. I discuss what I have been able to find about it in the section dealing with the Kernan surname.

      I have looked back over what I wrote, and I don’t see where I said there are only 6 counties in Ulster. I show all nine on the chart I have, along with neighboring counties. The counties are listed alphabetically.

      Would you mind sharing your source for the migration of Kernans? I am always looking for information that might shed some light on my own family’s origins.

      As far as I have been able to discover, my family never lived in Pennsylvania. My family left Ireland and arrived in Canada before entering the United States. They lived in the Midwest. I address that in the section dealing with immigration.

      Thank you for sharing your information. Please bare in mind that this site is intended to be about my family’s history, and not a history of all Kernans.

      Thank you,

      William

    • Hi Fred,

      Who exactly is wrong? Me or Seosa? This site presents my family’s history (as the front page makes clear), and I have only been able to go back so far. This page (Kernan Origins) speaks about the difficulties I have had in tracing my own family and where they were from in Ireland. I put information on here to help narrow down my own search–hence my exploration of surname studies, Irish records, and DNA research. Obviously, I am not addressing your own family’s history, though I am curious if you are related to me in any way. If you would like to share this information, please feel free to post it here or send me an email through the contact page.

      Take care,

      William

  4. MY best suggestion is to look at records from County Cork and County Langford. I found most of my info at the Baltimore public library. and traced my GREAT, GREAT grandfather
    who came from county Langford. ALTHOUGH my Dad had stated all my life we came from CORK!!! and in the last part 0f 1700!!!!

  5. The MacKiernan clan had their seat in the barony of Tullyhonco. As far as I’m aware this is one of very few baronies for which records from the 1841 census survive, so don’t forget to check them out if you haven’t already, should be pleanty of Kiernans there.

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